The thesis deals with possibilities of printing of load bearing constructions with the use of a 3D printer. Therefore in the introduction, advantages and positive impacts of this technology both in the field of environmental protection, as well as in the financial sector are presented, followed by classification and short presentation of different technologies. The focus is also made on the significance of how fibers orientation in the FDM printed specimens effects on tensile, flexural and fatigue strengths. Furthermore, achievements of 3D printing in construction are presented, and, in detail, the field of metal construction printing and construction components, respectively. Additionally, a bridge in Amsterdam is presented as an example of 3D printer capability to build load bearing constructions. It also shows us advantages that 3D printing has over traditionally used construction techniques. With topological optimization of truss nodes, it is shown that use of 3D printing technology in construction enables a new approach to construction designing; we can build lighter constructions and use the construction material only in places where it is crucial. This is due to the unique ability to print any form, without additional expenses. Besides topological optimization, the thesis also includes material optimization, which gets a whole new meaning using 3D printing technology. It is possible to develop new materials which are stronger, yet lighter this way. 3D Printing of building construction is not an illusion, it is only a question of when and to what extent will this technology replace the well-established techniques of building construction.