Geographic and temporal trends in the molecular epidemiology and genetic mechanisms of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance : an individual-patient- and sequence-level meta-analysis
Poljak, Mario (Avtor), Rhee, Soo-Yon (Avtor), Jiménez Blanco, José Luis (Avtor), Jordan, Michael R. (Avtor), Taylor, Jonathan (Avtor), Lemey, Philippe (Avtor), Varghese, Vici (Avtor), Hamers, Raph L. (Avtor), Bertagnolio, Silvia (Avtor), de Wit, Tobias F. Rinke (Avtor), Aghokeng, Avelin F. (Avtor)

URLURL - Predstavitvena datoteka, za dostop obiščite http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1001810 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu

Background Regional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and designing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We sought to understand the molecular epidemiology of TDR and to identify the HIV-1 drug-resistance mutations responsible for TDR in different regions and virus subtypes. Methods and Findings We reviewed all GenBank submissions of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase sequences with or without protease and identified 287 studies published between March 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013, with more than 25 recently or chronically infected ARV-naïve individuals. These studies comprised 50,870 individuals from 111 countries. Each set of study sequences was analyzed for phylogenetic clustering and the presence of 93 surveillance drug-resistance mutations (SDRMs). The median overall TDR prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), south/southeast Asia (SSEA), upper-income Asian countries, Latin America/Caribbean, Europe, and North America was 2.8%, 2.9%, 5.6%, 7.6%, 9.4%, and 11.5%, respectively. In SSA, there was a yearly 1.09-fold (95% CI: 1.05%1.14) increase in odds of TDR since national ARV scale-up attributable to an increase in non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance. The odds of NNRTI-associated TDR also increased in Latin America/Caribbean (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06%1.25), North America (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12%1.26), Europe (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01%1.13), and upper-income Asian countries (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.12%1.55). In SSEA, there was no significant change in the odds of TDR since national ARV scale-up (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.92%1.02). An analysis limited to sequences with mixtures at less than 0.5% of their nucleotide positions%a proxy for recent infection%yielded trends comparable to those obtained using the complete dataset. Four NNRTI SDRMs%K101E, K103N, Y181C, and G190A%accounted for >80% of NNRTI-associated TDR in all regions and subtypes. Sixteen nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) SDRMs accounted for >69% of NRTI-associated TDR in all regions and subtypes. In SSA and SSEA, 89% of NNRTI SDRMs were associated with high-level resistance to nevirapine or efavirenz, whereas only 27% of NRTI SDRMs were associated with high-level resistance to zidovudine, lamivudine, tenofovir, or abacavir. Of 763 viruses with TDR in SSA and SSEA, 725 (95%) were genetically dissimilar; 38 (5%) formed 19 sequence pairs. Inherent limitations of this study are that some cohorts may not represent the broader regional population and that studies were heterogeneous with respect to duration of infection prior to sampling. Conclusions Most TDR strains in SSA and SSEA arose independently, suggesting that ARV regimens with a high genetic barrier to resistance combined with improved patient adherence may mitigate TDR increases by reducing the generation of new ARV-resistant strains. A small number of NNRTI-resistance mutations were responsible for most cases of high-level resistance, suggesting that inexpensive point-mutation assays to detect these mutations may be useful for pre-therapy screening in regions with high levels of TDR. In the context of a public health approach to ARV therapy, a reliable point-of-care genotypic resistance test could identify which patients should receive standard first-line therapy and which should receive a protease-inhibitor-containing regimen.

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Ključne besede:HIV-1, transmission of drug resistant HIV, drug resistance mutations, molecular epidemiology, genetic mechanisms, antiretroviral therapy
Vrsta gradiva:Delo ni kategorizirano (r6)
Tipologija:1.01 - Izvirni znanstveni članek
Organizacija:MF - Medicinska fakulteta
Leto izida:2015
Št. strani:e1001810
Številčenje:Vol. 12, iss. 4
ISSN pri članku:1932-6203
DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001810 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
COBISS.SI-ID:31959513 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Število ogledov:543
Število prenosov:232
Skupna ocena:(0 glasov)
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Naslov:PloS one
Založnik:Public Library of Science
COBISS.SI-ID:2005896 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu

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