The theoretical foundation for this thesis is found in the concept of information literacy as the most development form of literacy so far, and in the information literacy trends, models and programs from the countries with the advanced information literacy theory and practice. The contemporary knowledge of cognitive science and the most important segments of information literacy, such as problem solving knowledge, information searching skills, critical selection of information sources and capability for efficient use of information, as well as their continuous upgrading during the learning process, are presented. The thesis emphasizes the role of the student, the academic library, the librarian and the teacher in the process of information literacy education. It presents the design of an information literacy programs and the results of its experimental testing in the pedagogic practice. On the basis of the obtained results a model of information literacy programs is proposed to be included as either optional or mandatory subject witin the ongoing Bologna process reforms in the Slovenian higher education.