Overcriminalization is often criticised, however the criticism in academic discussions is mainly "grounded" on the value based principle of criminal law as the ultima ratio or the last resort. The usual abstract methodology is turned upside down in this paper which aims to shed light on the problem at hand by analysing the case of "47 Teddy bears". The case or rather cases involve a limited liability company "Teddy bear Ltd." which filed (at least) 47 individual criminal complaints for the serious crime of business fraud against its debtors for non-payment of goods delivered. Even though we are dealing with practically identical facts and formulaic wording of the criminal complaints in most of the 47 cases, they did not all end the same way. In some of the cases, the prosecutor dismissed the complaint prima facie, in some the case was dropped in the investigative phase of the criminal procedure, some cases ended in acquittals and there are even cases where the debtors were found guilty of business fraud. Based on a larger sample of 562 cases of business fraud which were analysed, the author concluded that the case of the "47 Teddy bears" is a paradigmatic case of how criminal law is (ab)used in practice by creditors who use it to transfer their private debt collection costs on the state, specifically its criminal law system. The volume of such business fraud cases has another negative effect in the sense that it "steals" valuable resources from the criminal law system which could otherwise have been used to tackle more insidious and dangerous cases of economic crime. The analysis also indicates that prosecutors and judges have at their disposal enough interpretative discretion to clear de minimis cases of their dockets, if they want to.