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Glosa o "47 medotih" h kaznivemu dejanju poslovne goljufije in širjenju cone kriminalnosti v gospodarsko bagatelo
Keršmanc, Ciril (Author)

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://www.dlib.si/details/URN:NBN:SI:doc-AK349K9J This link opens in a new window

Abstract
Širjenje cone kriminalnosti v kazenskem pravu je pogosto predmet kritike, pri čemer slednja v znanstvenih razpravah praviloma temelji na abstraktnemu vrednostnemu načelu omejenosti represije oziroma načelu o kazenskemu pravu kot ultima ratio. V tem prispevku je običajna metodološka pot obrnjena na glavo, saj problematiko širjenja cone kriminalnosti osvetli od spodaj oziroma s praktičnega zornega kota na konkretni zadevi oziroma zadevah "47 Medotov". Gre za ovadbe za kaznivo dejanje poslovne goljufije, ki jih je zoper svoje dolžnike sprožil poslovni subjekt "Medo d.o.o.". Čeprav je šlo za praktično identične (formulaične) dejanske stanove, je razpon odločitev zelo širok: od zavrženj pa vse do obsodilnih in oprostilnih sodb. Hkrati lahko po pregledu 562 konkretnih zadev poslovne goljufije podamo oceno, da gre pri "47 Medotih" za tipsko-paradigmatičen primer (zlo)rabe kazenskega prava v praksi, s katerim upniki prevalijo zasebne stroške izvršbe na državo. Še več, številčnost tovrstnih zadev na kumulativni, sistemski ravni, prav tako "krade" omejena sredstva za pregon resnejših oblik gospodarske kriminalitete. Analiza konkretnih modalitet odločanja sicer nakazuje, da imajo pri kaznivem dejanju poslovne goljufije sodniki in tožilci na voljo dovolj interpretacijske diskrecije za zamejitev cone kriminalnosti v tistih primerih, ko stopnja bagatelnosti že nakazuje kvalitativen prehod iz kazenskega v civilno pravo.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:kazensko pravo, gospodarska kriminaliteta, bagatela, poslovna goljufija, širjenje cone kriminalnosti, načelo enakosti, načelo zakonitosti, načelo omejenosti represije, zloraba kazenskega prava, načelo ultima ratio, praksa
Work type:Not categorized (r6)
Tipology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Year:2013
Number of pages:str. 253-285, 304-305
Numbering:Letn. 73
UDC:343:347.7:339.19
ISSN on article:1854-3839
COBISS.SI-ID:13424465 Link is opened in a new window
Views:801
Downloads:200
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:Zbornik znanstvenih razprav
Shortened title:Zb. znan. razpr.
Publisher:Pravna fakulteta
ISSN:1854-3839
COBISS.SI-ID:223437312 This link opens in a new window

Secondary language

Language:English
Abstract:
Overcriminalization is often criticised, however the criticism in academic discussions is mainly "grounded" on the value based principle of criminal law as the ultima ratio or the last resort. The usual abstract methodology is turned upside down in this paper which aims to shed light on the problem at hand by analysing the case of "47 Teddy bears". The case or rather cases involve a limited liability company "Teddy bear Ltd." which filed (at least) 47 individual criminal complaints for the serious crime of business fraud against its debtors for non-payment of goods delivered. Even though we are dealing with practically identical facts and formulaic wording of the criminal complaints in most of the 47 cases, they did not all end the same way. In some of the cases, the prosecutor dismissed the complaint prima facie, in some the case was dropped in the investigative phase of the criminal procedure, some cases ended in acquittals and there are even cases where the debtors were found guilty of business fraud. Based on a larger sample of 562 cases of business fraud which were analysed, the author concluded that the case of the "47 Teddy bears" is a paradigmatic case of how criminal law is (ab)used in practice by creditors who use it to transfer their private debt collection costs on the state, specifically its criminal law system. The volume of such business fraud cases has another negative effect in the sense that it "steals" valuable resources from the criminal law system which could otherwise have been used to tackle more insidious and dangerous cases of economic crime. The analysis also indicates that prosecutors and judges have at their disposal enough interpretative discretion to clear de minimis cases of their dockets, if they want to.

Keywords:economic crime, "de minimis" economic crime cases, business fraud, overcriminalization, the principle of equality, the principle of legality, criminal law as ultima ratio, abuse of criminal law, case law

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