Mate recognition and location in Cicadellidae is mediated exclusively via substrate-borne vibrational signals. In the present study we investigated vibrational signals and mate searching behaviour of the leafhopper Aphrodes makarovi. We studied mating behaviour and exchange of vibrational signals between live insects and in playback experiments. Males emitted long and complex calling signals composed of several sections. Female reply was long and always overlapped the end of the male call. The exchange of male and female vibrational signals was a complex and dynamic interaction during which both partners modified their signals according to partner’s reply. The duration of female reply was influenced by the duration of the male call to which she was responding, while the duration of male call was influenced by the duration of the previous female reply. Such relationship suggests the role of sexual selection in the evolution of male vibrational signals.