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Vpliv igre v naravnem okolju na razvoj opazovalnih spretnosti predšolskega otroka : diplomsko delo
Kovač, Katarina (Avtor), Kos, Marjanca (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Povezava se odpre v novem oknu

URLURL - Predstavitvena datoteka, za dostop obiščite http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/id/eprint/2665 Novo okno

Izvleček
Naravno okolje je spodbudno okolje za učenje in igro predšolskih otrok. Mnoge raziskave kažejo, da se zaradi neomejenega prostora ter raznolikosti materialov in objektov igra otrok v naravnem okolju razvije v kompleksnejše in bolj ustvarjalne oblike kot v zaprtih prostorih ali na standardiziranih igriščih. Naravno okolje nudi otrokom veliko čutnih spodbud, ki pozitivno vplivajo na razvoj njegovih čutil in opazovalnih spretnosti. Opazovanje je kompleksna dejavnost, ki zahteva uporabo vseh čutil in vključuje miselne aktivnosti, kot so prepoznavanje podobnosti in razlik, zaporedij in vzorcev. V splošnem so predšolski otroci dobri opazovalci. Če jim omogočimo dovolj priložnosti za opazovanja, se njihova spretnost opazovanja s starostjo še razvija. Cilj mojega diplomskega dela je bil raziskati, kako predšolski otroci opazujejo naravne objekte – na primeru opazovanja drevesnih listov ugotoviti, kako natančno opazujejo. V nadaljevanju sem želela ugotoviti, ali prosta igra in učenje ob vodeni igri otrok v naravnem okolju vplivata na razvoj njihovih opazovalnih spretnosti. Iz opazovanja otrok pri igri v naravi pa sem želela razbrati, ali kontinuiteta stika predšolskih otrok z naravnim okoljem vpliva na kvaliteto igre, ki se v njem razvije. V raziskavo je bilo vključenih 21 5–6 let starih otrok. Na začetku sem z vsakim posebej izvedla test, s katerim sem ugotavljala otrokove opazovalne spretnosti. Otrok je imel nalogo, da med 15 vejicami dreves, za vsako od 6 testnih vejic izbere tisto, ki se mu zdi enaka testni (poišče par). Sledilo je 5 dni dejavnosti v gozdu, na gozdnem robu in na travniku. 3 dnevi so bili namenjeni prosti igri, 2 dneva pa bolj strukturiranim dejavnostim, usmerjenim na razvoj opazovalnih spretnosti skozi igro. Ob koncu dejavnosti sem z vsakim otrokom ponovno izvedla test njegovih opazovalnih spretnosti. Rezultati opažanj igre otrok v naravnem okolju so pokazali, da se je ta sčasoma razvijala. Otroci so napredovali na vseh področjih razvoja. Podrobno so opazovali naravne materiale, spoznavali njihovo strukturo, opazovali živali, razvijali različne teorije in tako odpirali raznovrstne naravoslovne teme, v igri so naleteli na probleme in vztrajali pri iskanju rešitev zanje. Izražali so pozitivna in negativna čustva ter izražali skrb za naravo, se učili, kako skleniti kompromis in si med seboj pomagali. Gibalno so bili zelo aktivni, razvijali so ravnotežje in osnovne oblike gibanja. Z mojo raziskavo pa nisem uspela pokazati očitnega napredka v opazovalnih spretnostih pri otrocih, ki so se veliko igrali v naravi. Spremembe, ki sem jih ugotovila, so premajhne, da bi lahko naredila kakršne koli zaključke. Kljub temu pa menim, da so dejavnosti v naravi pustile pečat tudi na tem področju. Otroke je naravno okolje privlačilo. V diplomskem delu sem otrokom omogočila pozitivno izkušnjo narave in možnost za čudenje, kar je zagotovo vplivalo na razvoj ne samo njihovega znanja in spretnosti, pač pa tudi odnosa do narave.

Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Ključne besede:narava, igra v gozdu, opazovanje
Vrsta gradiva:Diplomsko delo/naloga (mb11)
Tipologija:2.11 - Diplomsko delo
Organizacija:PEF - Pedagoška fakulteta
Leto izida:2014
Založnik:[K. Kovač]
Št. strani:59 str.
UDK:373.22(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:10386505 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Število ogledov:646
Število prenosov:72
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
 
Skupna ocena:(0 glasov)
Vaša ocena:Ocenjevanje je dovoljeno samo prijavljenim uporabnikom.
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:The impact of outdoor play and nature games on the development of observation skills in preschool children
Izvleček:
Nature is a very stimulating environment for preschool children to learn and to play. Numerous studies show that the unlimited space as well as diverse materials and objects encourage children to develop more complex and creative ways of playing in the natural environment as opposed to the closed spaces or standardised playgrounds. The natural environment offers many sensory stimulations which have a positive effect on the development of child's sense organs and observation abilities. Observation is a complex process which requires all sense organs to participate and includes mental activities as for example spotting similarities and differences, sequences and patterns. In general, preschool children are good observers. If they are provided with enough opportunities for observation, the ability tends to develop with age. The aim of my bachelor's thesis was to explore how preschool children observe objects in the nature. In order to find out how carefully they observe I focused on the example of observing tree leafs. Furthermore, I wanted to establish whether free play and learning through guided play in the nature had an influence on the development of children's observation abilities. Watching preschool children play in the nature I sought to determine whether a permanent contact with the nature affects the quality of the play which unfolds in such environment. The research included 21 children aged 5-6. At the beginning I conducted a test with every child individually focusing on their observation abilities. For 6 test twigs a child had to spot the twig which was the same as the chosen one (she/he had to find pairs) among 15 twigs. Afterwards the children were left playing freely for three days, whereas for two days they had to involve in the more structured activities focusing on the development of observation abilities through playing. At the end of the activities I once again tested the observation abilities of each child separately. The results obtained by watching the children play in the nature suggest that their play developed with time. The children showed progress in all areas. They observed natural materials very carefully, inspected their structure, watched animals, developed various theories and raised different subjects concerning nature; during the play they faced problems and were determined to find solutions for them. They expressed positive as well as negative feelings, took care of nature, learned how to reach a compromise and helped each other. They were physically very active and developed a sense of balance and basic forms of movement. However, in my research I could not recognize a clear progress in observation abilities of children who were often playing in the nature. The differences I noticed are too small to allow for any definite conclusions. Still, I believe that activities in the nature had a beneficial influence in this area as well. Children were attracted to the natural environment. During the activities related to bachelor's thesis they gained a positive experience of the nature and were given many possibilities to observe. All this certainly had a positive influence on the development not only of their knowledge and abilities but also of their attitude to the nature.


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