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Kosovel, velik pesnik in slab verzifikator
Novak, Boris (Author), Jelnikar, Ana (Translator)

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://www.dlib.si/details/URN:NBN:SI:DOC-ASU1RLMC This link opens in a new window

Abstract
Večina zgodnjih Kosovelovih pesniških besedil, ki jih slovenska literarna zgodovina z ne preveč natančno oznako imenuje "impresionistična lirika", sodi po formalnih razsežnostih v okvir tradicionalne verzifikacije, točneje: v obdobje njenega razkrajanja in zatona. Gre za vezano besedo, določeno z metričnimi zakonitostmi silabotonične verzifikacije, ki so pa že zrahljane in kažejo v smer prostega verza. Pesniški jezik v teh pesmih je zelo preprost: verzni ritem je utemeljen na najbolj pogostih in priljubljenih metrih, podedovanih iz dolge tradicije, za evfonijo so značilne ze neštetokrat slišane in zlizane rime, kompozicija pesmi pa je členjena v najbolj razširjene kitične oblike (najpogosteje štirivrstičnice). Še posebej je zanimiva Kosovelova raba rime: njegov slovar rim je - če naj bomo povsem iskreni - izjemno reven, s prevlado tako imenovanih glagolskih rim. (Med vsemi besednimi družinami je zaradi sovpadanja končnic glagole v slovenščini najlaže rimati, rime, ki so prelahke, pa so pomensko - in torej tudi zvočno - revne.) Kot da Kosovel nenehno ponavlja rime, ki se jih je na pamet naučil iz pesniškega kanona slovenske poezije 19. stoletja. Pri vsakem drugem, manj nadarjenem sočasnem pesniku bi zatekanje k tako znanim in domačim verznim končnicam pomenilo znamenje obupno sentimentalne, zastarele in konzervativne poetike. Pri Kosovelu pa te neštetokrat uporabljene in zlorabljene rime nenadoma zazvenijo drugače, sveže, umetniško pristno. Znotraj okvirov tradicionalne verzifikacije se zgodi tih, a globok in daljnosezen prelom: drugačna raba jezika tudi tem podedovanim ritmom in rimam podeli nov zven in pomen (kajti v poeziji je zven vselej tesno povezan s pomenom). Skratka: korpus Kosovelovih pesmi, napisanih v vezani besedi, nam ponuja obilo šolskih primerov, da umetniško močna poezija ni vselej zgrajena na enako spretni verzifikaciji. Srečko Kosovel je slab verzifikator in velik pesnik. K sreči verzifikacija v poeziji ni vse. Verzifikacija se s časom tudi spreminja. Napake znotraj starega estetskega sistema rade postanejo kvalitete v naslednjem obdobju.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:slovenska poezija, 20. st., verzifikacija, metrika, rima
Work type:Not categorized (r6)
Tipology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:FF - Faculty of Arts
Year:2005
Publisher:Slovensko društvo za primerjalno književnost
Number of pages:Str. 7-17, 133-143
Numbering:28, posebna
UDC:821.163.6.09-1 Kosovel S.
ISSN on article:0351-1189
COBISS.SI-ID:29806178 Link is opened in a new window
Views:442
Downloads:83
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Record is a part of a proceedings

Title:Kosovelova poetika
COBISS.SI-ID:29804898 This link opens in a new window

Record is a part of a journal

Title:Primerjalna književnost
Shortened title:Primer. književ.
Publisher:Slovensko društvo za primerjalno književnost
ISSN:0351-1189
COBISS.SI-ID:8744704 This link opens in a new window

Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Kosovel: a great poet but a poor prosodist
Abstract:
Formally, the majority of Kosovel's early poems, which Slovenian literary history has unsatisfactorily labelled "impressionist lyrical poetry", fall within the framework of traditional versification; more precisely, they belong to the period of its disintegration and demise. Awkward in prosody, young Kosovel somewhat weakened traditional accentual-syllabic versification, thus bringing it closer to free verse. In these poems, Kosovel's poetic language is very simple: verse rhythm is derivative of the most common and popular meters taken from a long tradition, the verse endings are marked by hackneyed, unoriginal rhymes, and the poems are usually divided into the most prevalent stanza structure (mainly quatrains). Particularly interesting is Kosovel's use of rhyme: his rhyming dictionary is, in fact, extremely poor, with a prevalence of so-called verbal rhymes. (Of all the parts of speech in the Slovenian language, verbs are the easiest to rhyme because of their corresponding inflections, and easily-formed rhymes tend to be semantically - and thereby musically - poor.) It is as though Kosovel were endlessly repeating the rhymes he had learnt from the poetic canon of 19th-century Slovenian poetry. For any other, less talented, poet of Kosovel's time, drawing on such a familiar and worn-out domestic stock of rhyme endings would be a clear sign of a grossly sentimental and conservative poetics. Not so with Kosovel: in his verse, these rhymes, a hundred times used and abused, suddenly ring out in a different, fresh, and artistically authentic way. Kosovel surpassed the weakness of his versification by repeating his mistakes: a repeated mistake is no longer a mistake; it is already a system. A silent, but a deep and far-reaching break was effected within the traditional versification: even these inherited rhythms and rhymes were endowed with new sounds and meaning through a different usage of poetic language (for in poetry, sound and meaning are always closely bound together). In short, this segment of Kosovel's poetry offers plenty of textbook examples which show thatgreat poetry does not necessarily rest on skilful versification. Srečko Kosovel is a poor prosodist, but a great poet. Fortunately, in poetry, versification is not everything. Moreover, versification undergoes significant changes through time, and Kosovel's example demonstrates that the shortcomings within one aesthetic system can become advantages in the next.

Keywords:Slovene poetry, 20th cent., versification, metrics, rhyme

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