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Diferenciacija v šoli : enako ali različno za različne otroke
Marjanovič Umek, Ljubica (Author)

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Abstract
V prispevku, upoštevajoč nekatera teoretična spoznanja in rezultate tujih ter domačih empiričnih raziskav, analiziramo posamezne spremembe, vpeljane v devetletno osnovno šolo v zadnjih dveh letih. Zanima nas, kaj te spremembe pomenijo z vidika koherentnosti sistemskih in vsebinskih rešitev, kot so bile postavljene v konceptu, zapisanem v Beli knjigi o vzgoji in izobraževanju (1995), in izpeljane v Zakonu v osnovni šoli iz leta 1996, ter koliko so strokovno utemeljene. Izbrali smo dve vrsti sprememb, ki se posebej nanašajo na diferenciacijo v šoli, in sicer spremembe nivojskega pouka in spremembe pri zunanjem ocenjevanju znanja - pri slednjih nas je zlasti zanimala diferenciacija glede na spol. V okviru prve raziskave , izpeljane na več kot 400 mladostnikih, ki so bili vključeni v 9. razred osnovne šole, smo ugotovili, da sta pri razvrščanju učencev in učenk na posamezni ravni zahtevnosti pouka pomembni merili mladostnikovega govorna kompetentnost in njegove intelektualne sposobnosti, ki sta tudi sicer najvišja napovednika znanja učencev. Materina izobrazba je imela manjši učinek na razvrstitev učencev kot navedeni psihološki značilnosti mladostnikov. Izsledki druge raziskave, v katero smo vključili učence in učenke 3. in 4. razreda ter 9. razreda devetletne osnovne šole, pa kažejo, da dosegajo mlajša in starejša dekleta pomembno višje ocene od fantov pri skoraj vseh predmetih v šoli, ko njihovo znanje ocenjujejo učitelji; ko pa gre za zunanje ocenjevanje znanja, so pri starejših mladostnikih razlike med dekleti in fanti pomembne le še pri slovenščini. Ker dosežki pri nacionalnih preizkusih znanja niso eno od meril za vpis v srednje šole z omejenim vpisom, to pomeni še dodatno nepravičnost ocenjevanja znanja glede na spol.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:nivojski pouk, ocenjevanje znanja, zunanje ocenjevanje znanja, osnovne šole, razlike med spoloma
Work type:Not categorized (r6)
Tipology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:FF - Faculty of Arts
Year:2007
Publisher:Zveza društev pedagoških delavcev Slovenije
Number of pages:str. 108-127
Numbering:Letn. 58 (124), št. 2
UDC:371.21
ISSN on article:0038-0474
COBISS.SI-ID:34782818 Link is opened in a new window
Views:686
Downloads:92
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:Sodobna pedagogika
Shortened title:Sodob. pedagog.
Publisher:Zveza društev pedagoških delavcev Slovenije
ISSN:0038-0474
COBISS.SI-ID:761348 This link opens in a new window

Secondary language

Language:English
Title:enako ali različno za različne otroke
Abstract:
Taking account of certain theoretical findings and results of foreign and domestic empirical researches, the article analyses individual changes introduced into the nine-year primary school in the last two years. We want to know what these changes mean in terms of the coherence of systemic and substantive solutions, as established in the concept laid down in the White paper on education (1995) and implemented in the Primary school act of 1996, and to what extent they are scientifically justified. We chose two types of changes especially referring to differentiation at school, namely changes in ability grouping and changes in the external assessment of knowledge - with the latter we were primarily interested in differentiation with regard to gender. Within the first research involving over 400 adolescents from the 9th grade of primary school, we found that two important criteria in the classification of pupils into individual levels of education were the adolescents' speech competence and their intellectual abilities, which are also otherwise the best predictors of the knowledge of a student. The mother's level of education had a smaller effect on the classification of pupils than the abovementioned psychological characteristics of the adolescents. The findings of the second research, involving pupils of 3rd and 4th grades, along with pupils of the 9th grade of the nine-year primary school, show that younger and older girls achieve significantly higher grades than boys in almost all subjects at school when their knowledge is assessed by teachers; however, in external knowledge assessments the differences between girls and boys with older pupils are only significant in the Slovenian language. Since the achievemnts in the national examination of knowledge are not one of the criteria for enrolment in secondary schools with limited enrolment, this creates additional injustice in the assessing of knowledge with regard to gender.

Keywords:ability grouping, knowledge assessment, external knowledge assessment, primary schools, gender differences

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