In developed countries, 75 million individuals suffer from osteoporosis. Everyyear, more that 2,3 million osteoporotic fractures occur in Europe and USA. In Slovenia, osteoporosis affects 27.5% of women after the age of 50, and 14.6% of men after the age of 60. For prevention of osteoporotic fractures,bisphosphonates, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and strontium ranelate are used. Since 2010, the first human monoclonal antibody denosumab is available for treatment of osteoporosis. Teriparatide is an osteoanabolic drug which is used due to its high price only in patients with new osteoporotic fracture occuring during other osteoporosis treatment. At the moment, numerous new medicines for the treatment of osteoporosis are being tested. The most promising seem to be cathepsine K inhibitors and substances, targeting Wnt signalling pathway. We believe that new medicines will enable a selection of a more appropriate treatment for a specific patient and will therefore markedly reduce the number of osteoporotic fractures.