izpis_h1_title_alt

Amfetamin in metamfetamin: mehanizem delovanja, učinki, zastrupitev in diagnostika
Ostrovršnik, Jaka (Author), Cvirn, Anina (Author), Peterlin-Mašič, Lucija (Author)

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://www.medrazgl.si/e107_plugins/simple_content/scontent.php?Arhiv+%C5%A1tevilk.2011%2F1.2011%2F1%2F03+Ostrovr%C5%A1nik+J%2C+Cvirn+A%2C+Peterlin+Ma%C5%A1i%C4%8D+L+-+Amfetamin+in+metamfetamin%3A+mehanizem+delovanja%2C+u%C4%8Dinki%2C+zastrupitev+in+diagnostika New window

Abstract
Uživanje amfetamina je po svetu zelo razširjeno, najbolj v Združenih državah Amerike, Avstraliji in Aziji. V Sloveniji uporaba amfetamina in metamfetamina ni tako razširjena, prav tako število uživalcev trenutno ne narašča. Amfetamini povzročajo občutek evforije. Učinki so posledica povečanega sproščanja dopamina, noradrenalina in serotonina v sinapsah centralnega živčnega sistema. V skupino amfetaminov uvrščamo spojine, ki jim je skupen amfetaminski skelet in psihostimulativno delovanje. Posamezni amfetamini se med seboj razlikujejo po farmakokinetičnih lastnostih (absorpciji, distribuciji, metabolizmu in izločanju) in jakosti delovanja, nekateri pa tudi po mehanizmu delovanja. Uživanje amfetaminov spremlja nevarnost akutne zastrupitve, ki je lahko smrtno nevarna, saj pride do prekomerne simpatomimetične stimulacije srčnožilnega sistema. V prvi vrsti se za simptomatsko zdravljenje zastrupitev uporabljajo benzodiazepini, ki zavirajo delovanje živčnega sistema. Kronično uživanje predvsem metamfetamina je nevrotoksično, saj povzroči značilne nevrokognitivne motnje. Kljub vsem nevarnostim uporabe amfetaminov, se ti uporabljajo tudi za zdravljenje motnje pozornosti s hiperaktivnostjo in narkolepsije. V Evropski uniji uporaba amfetaminov v te namene ni registrirana, saj se pri takem zdravljenju lahko razvije odvisnost. Žal trenutno ne poznamo učinkovite farmakoterapije za zdravljenje amfetaminske odvisnosti, a raziskave o uporabi atipičnih antipsihotikov, zaviralca kalcijevih kanalov isradipina in protiepileptika vigabatrina kažejo obetavne rezultate za uporabo v prihodnosti.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:amfetamin, metamfetamin, farmakologija, nevrotoksičnost, zdravljenje odvisnosti, učinki amfetaminov
Work type:Not categorized (r6)
Tipology:1.02 - Review Article
Organization:FFA - Faculty of Pharmacy
Year:2011
Number of pages:str. 17-32
Numbering:Letn. 50, št. 1
UDC:615.9
ISSN on article:0025-8121
COBISS.SI-ID:2976369 Link is opened in a new window
Views:916
Downloads:148
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
 
Average score:(0 votes)
Your score:Voting is allowed only to logged in users.
:
Share: Bookmark and Share

Record is a part of a journal

Title:Medicinski razgledi
Shortened title:Med. razgl.
Publisher:Medicinski razgledi
ISSN:0025-8121
COBISS.SI-ID:3390978 New window

Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Amphetamine and methamphetamine: mechanism of action, effects, poisoning and diagnostics
Abstract:
Amphetamine consumption is highly spread throughout the world, especially in the Unites States of America, Australia and Asia. In Slovenia, the consumption of amphetamines and methamphetamines is not so spread and, furthermore, it is also not increasing. Amphetamines cause a euphoric state. Their effects are an immediate consequence of an increased release of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline in synapses of the central nervous system. Amphetamines are classified as substances that share an amphetamine skeleton. Amphetamines differ in their pharmacokinetic properties (absorption,distribution, metabolism and excretion) and potency, and some amphetamines also have a specific mechanism of action. Amphetamine usage is dangerous as can result in potentially lethal acute poisoning because of sympathomimetic overstimulation of the cardiovascular system. The first choice for the treatment of poisoning would be benzodiazepines, which suppress the nervous system. A prolonged, chronic usage of amphetamines, particularly methamphetamine, is neurotoxic and produces distinctive neurocognitive disorders. Despite being dangerous, amphetamines are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. This type of treatment is not registered in the European Union, however, because of its potential for the development of addiction. Unfortunately, there is no effective pharmacotherapy for the treatment of amphetamine addiction, but studies about the usage of the atypical antipsychotic and calcium channel blocker is radipine and the antiepileptic drug vigabatrin show promising results for future treatment.


Similar documents

Similar works from RUL:
Similar works from other Slovenian collections:

Comments

Leave comment

You have to log in to leave a comment.

Comments (0)
0 - 0 / 0
 
There are no comments!

Back