This first round of Central and Eastern Euro-Barometer Surveys was undertaken during the reunification of Germany and after the announcement of independence by several Soviet states and the realignment of governments in Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria. In an atmosphere of changed relations among the nations of Eastern and Western Europe, this survey attempted to assess Central and Eastern Europeans' awareness of and attitudes toward the European Community, its programs and activities, and issues facing all European nations. It also explored citizens' reactions to the political and economic reforms occurring in their own countries. Surveys were carried out in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, and the German Democratic Republic, as well as in the former Soviet Union. The Soviet Union samples were obtained from the Greater Moscow area and from the republics of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, and Russia west of the Ural Mountains. In all surveys comprising Euro-Barometer 1, demographic data usually included the respondent's age, sex, level of education, family size, income, occupation, marital status, and religious denomination. In some places, mother tongue and self-described left-right political placement were also ascertained. In most countries, respondents were asked how they felt things were going in their country in general, how well their country's economy and their own finances had fared over the past year, whether they thought the establishment of a free market economy was right or wrong, and whether economic reforms and privatization were occurring too rapidly or too slowly. Satisfaction with the development of democracy and with their own place in their political systems was assessed. In some countries, respondents were asked about their intention to vote in the next general election. Respondents in all countries were asked how frequently they thought of themselves as European, and about their level of trust toward citizens of other European countries. They expressed opinions for or against the reunification of Germany and the unification of Western Europe. They were also asked to indicate how aware they were of, and how interested in, the European Community and its activities and institutions, and to rate how positively they regarded the European Community and the prospect of their country's membership in the Community. Country-specific questions were asked regarding sources of information about the European Community. Several items concerned respondents' reliance on various types of information media, including foreign broadcasts. Participants were also asked about how the economy, government, and private citizens might be advantaged or disadvantaged by their country's increasing ties with the European Community (ICPSR Study Description).