The diploma thesis deals with country of Sri Lanka on historical and political-geographic background. The main emphasis of the thesis is about the Tamil national question. Sri Lanka became independent in 1948 from British colonial rule. Population of Sri Lanka is composed of Sinhala majority, large Tamil and some minor ethnic groups. Under British colonial rule Tamils had good social position, which had changed after the independence. After the independence Sinhala majority had no interest of Tamil emancipation, so they started to discriminate their rights. Because of religious and ethnic disagreements between Hindu Tamils and Budist Sinhala country fell in deep and long-lasting political crisis. Crisis resulted as 26 years long civil war between Tamils separatists (LTTE) and Sri Lankan army. All participants and also UN did not find enough political will to end the war. In 2009 Sri Lankan army defeated Tamil separatists on battlefield, but their ideas are still alive.