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Izdelava in karakterizacija novih aluminijevih avtomatnih zlitin iz serije 6xxx z dodatkom bizmuta
Rečnik, Simon (Avtor), Nagode, Aleš (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Povezava se odpre v novem oknu, Cvahte, Peter (Komentor)

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Izvleček
Najpomembnejše avtomatne aluminijske zlitine, iz katerih se s postopki odrezovanja izdelujejo različni strojni deli, so bile do nedavnega iz serij AA2000 in AA6000, z dodatki svinca ali kombinacije svinca, bizmuta in kositra. Zaradi toksičnosti svinca se je v Evropski uniji sprejelo mednarodne direktive (ELV, RoHS, REACH), ki od 1. 7. 2008 omejujejo delež svinca v aluminijevih zlitinah na največ 0,40 mas.%. V zadnjih letih so bili predpisani še strožji ukrepi, zaradi česar si proizvajalci prizadevajo razviti nove avtomatne zlitine brez dodatka svinca. Cilj magistrskega dela je bil izdelati aluminijevo avtomatno zlitino AA6026 z dodatkom bizmuta kot nadomestka za toksični svinec. V sklopu eksperimentalnega dela magistrske naloge smo izdelali zlitino AA6026 z dodatkom 1,1 mas.% bizmuta. Raziskovali smo, kako dodajanje bizmuta v različnih fazah izdelave zlitine vpliva na sestavo, obliko in porazdelitev bizmutovih faz v zlitini. V prvem primeru je bil bizmut dodan v indukcijski peči, v drugem primeru pred odstajanjem v elektrouporovni peči ter v tretjem primeru pred litjem. Za karakterizacijo mikrostrukture smo uporabili svetlobno in vrstično elektronsko mikroskopijo ter rentgensko fazno analizo (XRD), temperature faznih prehodov med segrevanjem in ohlajanjem pa smo zasledovali z metodo diferenčne vrstične kalorimetrije (DSC). Na podlagi dobljenih rezultatov smo izdelali model strjevanja zlitine s poudarkom na nastanku bizmutovih faz. Ugotovljeno je bilo, da se je bizmut v vseh ulitih vzorcih vezal z magnezijem v fazo Mg3Bi2, ki se je v mikrostrukturi pojavljala v dveh oblikah, in sicer kot primarna faza α Mg3Bi2 v obliki oglatih in heksagonalnih delcev, ki se je nahajala znotraj primarnih zmesnih kristalov αAl, ter kot evtektik v obliki palic, ki se je nahajal na mejah kristalnih zrn s fazama Mg2Si in Al15Si2(FeMn)3. Z raziskavami smo potrdili, da dodajanje bizmuta v različnih fazah izdelave zlitine vpliva na porazdelitev in delež bizmutovih faz. Najmanj primarnih faz α Mg3Bi2 znotraj kristalnih zrn je nastalo v primeru dodajanja bizmuta v indukcijski peči.

Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Ključne besede:avtomatna zlitina AA6xxx, bizmut, model strjevanja, faza Mg3Bi2
Vrsta gradiva:Magistrsko delo/naloga (mb22)
Organizacija:NTF - Naravoslovnotehniška fakulteta
Leto izida:2018
COBISS.SI-ID:1778783 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Število ogledov:73
Število prenosov:54
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
 
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:Fabrication and characterization of new 6xxx free-cutting aluminum alloys with bismuth addition
Izvleček:
Until recently, the most important free-machining aluminium alloys were from the AA2000 and AA6000 series with additions of lead or combinations of lead, bismuth, and tin. Due to lead toxicity, international directives (ELV, RoHS, REACH) were adopted in the European Union, which from 1 July 2008 limit the use of lead in aluminium alloys to a maximum of 0,4 wt.%. In recent years, even stricter measures have been imposed, which is why manufacturers are striving to develop new free-machining aluminium alloys without the addition of lead. The aim of the master's thesis was a synthesis of AA6026 alloy with the addition of bismuth, as a substitute for toxic lead. Within the experimental work of the master's thesis, we produced the alloy AA6026 with 1,1 wt.% of bismuth. We studied how the addition of bismuth at various stages of alloy manufacturing affects the composition, shape and distribution of bismuth phases in the alloy. In the first case, bismuth was added to the induction furnace, in the second in the holding electric resistant furnace, and in the third example few minutes prior to casting. Characterization of the microstructure was carried out by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The temperature of the phase transitions during heating and cooling was followed by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. On the basis of the obtained results, we developed a solidification model of the alloy with an emphasis on the formation of bismuth phases. It was found that bismuth was bound with magnesium in the Mg3Bi2 phase in all cast samples, which appeared in the microstructure in two forms: as the primary α-Mg3Bi2 phase in the form of angular and hexagonal particles, which was located inside the primary αAl crystals, as well as the rod-like eutectic which segregates on the grain boundaries together with Mg2Si or Al15Si2(FeMn)3 phases. We have confirmed that the addition of bismuth at different stages of alloy manufacturing affects the distribution and the fraction of bismuth phases. The smallest fraction of primary α-Mg3Bi2 particles were phases formed in the case of bismuth addition in the induction furnace.

Ključne besede:free-cutting AA6xxx alloy, bismuth, solidification model, Mg3Bi2 phase

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