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Analiza in sinteza stabilnosti magnetne levitacije
Grošelj, Marko (Avtor), Podržaj, Primož (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Povezava se odpre v novem oknu

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Izvleček
Magistrsko delo predstavlja praktično uporabo pridobljenih znanj na študijski smeri Mehatronika in laserska tehnika. V delu je obravnavano krmiljenje odprtozančno nestabilnega sistema magnetne levitacije ter zasnova digitalnega krmilnika za obravnavan sistem. Narejen je bil matematični model magnetne levitacije, katerega osnova sta dve diferencialni enačbi. Prva opisuje mehanski del sistema, druga pa njegov električni del. Model je nato lineariziran v obratovalni točki, zanj pa razvit PID krmilnik. Izvedeni sta analiza stabilnosti, na osnovi korenske krivulje, ter simulacija nelinearnega in lineariziranega modela magnetne levitacije. Pri tem sta uporabljeni programski okolji Matlab in Simulink, ki vsebujeta vrsto orodij za snovanje in analizo krmilnih sistemov. Pri sintezi modela magnetne levitacije je predstavljalo največji izziv vrednotenje magnetne sile. Sila je bila najprej določena po eksperimentalni poti, nato pa še z numeričnimi metodami končnih elementov s programskim orodjem EMWorks. S primerjavo rezultatov je bilo ugotovljeno, da smo z manjšimi odstopanji magnetno silo v obeh primerih opredelili primerljivo. Praktičen del magistrskega dela je predstavljala izdelava naprave ter preizkus njenega delovanja. V ta namen je bila v programskem jeziku C napisana izvorna koda, v kodo pa je bil implementiran digitalni PID krmilni algoritem. Pri praktičnem delu naloge je največji izziv predstavljalo merjenje oddaljenosti trajnega magneta na osnovi magnetnega polja, ob prisotnosti magnetnega polja tuljave. Rešitev smo našli v izvedbi merjenja z dvema Hall-ovima senzorjema, katerih vrednosti smo nato odšteli na diferencialnem ojačevalniku. Na koncu je bila narejena primerjava delovanja izdelane naprave in njenega teoretičnega modela. Na podlagi njunih odgovorov prehoda (koračnih odzivov) smo ugotovili, da lahko na osnovi modela zadovoljivo predvidimo delovanje dejanske naprave.

Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Ključne besede:magnetna levitacija, PID krmilnik, mikrokrmilnik, tuljava z zračnim jedrom, Hall-ov senzor, pulzno širinska, modulacija PWM, diferencialni ojačevalnik
Vrsta gradiva:Magistrsko delo/naloga (mb22)
Organizacija:FS - Fakulteta za strojništvo
Leto izida:2018
Število ogledov:109
Število prenosov:85
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
 
Skupna ocena:(0 glasov)
Vaša ocena:Ocenjevanje je dovoljeno samo prijavljenim uporabnikom.
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:Analysis and synthesis of magnetic levitation system
Izvleček:
The master's thesis represents a practical use of the knowledge acquired in the course of study of mechatronics and laser techniques. The paper deals with a control of an open - loop unstable magnetic levitation system and the design of a digital controller for the system under consideration. The mathematical model of magnetic levitation was made based on two differential equations. The first describe the mechanical part of the system, and the second equation for its electrical part. The model is then linearized at its operating point, and a PID controller is developed. The stability analysis was performed using the root locus method and the simulation of the nonlinear and linearized model of magnetic levitation were also performed. The Matlab software environment, which includes a set of tools for the design and analysis of control systems was used. In the synthesis of the magnetic levitation model, the greatest challenge was the evaluation of the magnetic force. The force was first determined by the experimental path, and then by the numerical finite element methods with the EMWorks software tool. By comparing the results, it was found that, with minor deviations, the magnetic force in both cases was similar. In the practical part of the master's thesis the device had to be made and its operation tested. Program code was written in C language, and a digital PID control algorithm was implemented in the code. In the practical part of the task, the biggest challenge was evaluation of the distance of the permanent magnet based on its magnetic field in the presence of the magnetic field of the coil. We found the solution in the implementation of two Hall sensors, the output signals of which are subtracted on the differential amplifier. At the end, a comparison of the operation of the device and its theoretical model was made. Based on the step responses, it was concluded that it is possible to predict the operation of the actual device based on its theoretical model with sufficient certainty.

Ključne besede:magnetic levitation, PID controller, microcontroller, air coil, Hall effect sensor, pulse width modulation PWM, differential amplifier

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