This master thesis examines the narrative in literature and film, relying on the findings of structuralist narratology, as well as on various researches of postclassical narratology, especially those of cognitive approaches. The narrative in this thesis is presented according to its broader terminological definition, and thus as a semiotic representation, or as a phenomenon beyond the media, whilst the minimal conditions of narrativity are being defined. It is also discussed according to its narrower definition as a communication relationship between the participants of the communication, with emphasis especially on the concept of the narrator in literary and film theory. Concepts of the outlined narratological theories, resulting from one or the other definition of narrative, are in the continuation of the master thesis applied to specific cases of film narrative - von Trier films Dogville and Manderlay. This analysis is an attempt to demonstrate how both narratives direct the viewer's (re)construction of a story and his/her comprehension of narrative meaning, especially with their structural form, manipulation of space and camera movement, and with the establishment of irony through an unreliable narrator.